Impact of higher ecological costs on surface mining.
Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, OFR 12-75, 1974 Jan; :1-170
A study was undertaken to determine the cost per ton of surface mined coal that will be required to reach reclamation standards in Kentucky, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia. A mathematical model was developed to calculate the cost of surface reclamation using the shovel overcasting method, the front-end loader operation, and the backfilling operation method. The actual local costs for each unit process were obtained from surface mining permits in Virginia and used to validate the mathematical model. The actual costs were found to closely approximate those used in the model in the first computer run.
Surface mining; Land reclamation; Strip mining; Coal mining; Cost estimates; Mathematical models; Backfills; Dams; Planting; Earthworking; Computer programs; Soil conservation; Soil stabilization; Erosion control
CP; Final Contract Report
NTIS Accession No.
Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, OFR 12-75
Virginia Polytechnic Institute. & State University