Laboratory characterization studies have investigated the processing variability of carbonaceous uranium-bearing materials found in sandstone deposits. This work was conducted by the federal Bureau of Mines in support of its goal to maintain an adequate supply of minerals to meet national economic and strategic needs. Conventional processing produces only partial uranium recovery from these ore materials. Ore samples from New Mexico, Texas, and Wyoming were examined, and each responded differently. Using direct acid leaching techniques, some of the ores required acid additions of only 50 pounds per ton, while others required 300 pounds per ton of material. Maximum extractions ranged from 83 to 94 percent in the six ores tested. Roasting those ores prior to leaching improved extraction of the uranium to the 90 to 99 percent range. An oxidative autoclave treatment used with five of these ores resulted in extraction of 78 to 97 percent of the uranium. The experimental studies also showed that some carbonaceous materials can be concentrated by froth flotation. The flotation tailings were amenable to acid leaching, and up to 98 percent of the uranium was extracted from this type of material.