Tuscaloosa, AL: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, IC 8724, 1976 Jan; :1-24
This Bureau of Mines paper describes the composition and properties of drilling fluids for use in high-temperature geothermal wells, and summarizes the problems encountered with fluid use at the known major geothermal sites throughout the world. These include the western continental United States, Hawaii, Italy, Iceland, Japan, New Zealand, and Turkey. Water-base drilling fluids of 9- to 10- lb/gal weights are relied on primarily for geothermal well use, although air drilling is sometimes used. Bentonite-lignite-water systems have been used most often, and additives such as polyacrylates, lignosulfonates, and chromates are employed to improve the properties of the basic system.
Tuscaloosa, AL: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, IC 8724