A lunar mining operation will be exposed to a hostile environment. Development work is currently being conducted to provide shelters for the site crews and equipment capable of withstanding the extraterrestrial conditions. The U.S. Bureau of Mines, among others, has been involved in extraterrestrial mining research, and this paper considers the Apollo mission data and ensuing research on the lunar regolith relevant to mining operations. It compares surface mining scenarios and underground operations for lunar resource utilization. Consideration is given to protection from the environment and to the productivity, power requirements, safety, maintenance, and reliability of the equipment. These comparisons will be based on principles used in surface and underground mining and underground building designs.