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Source of Solids in Injection Waters, Wilmington Field, California.

Gates GL; Caraway WH; Lechtenberg HJ
NTIS: PB 242 623 :23 pages
The waters used to waterflood the Wilmington oilfield were studied by the Bureau of Mines, in cooperation with the city of Long Beach, CA. Increases in the pressure of the injection wells indicated that they were being plugged by materials suspended in the waters. This study was made to identify the suspended materials, determine their origin, and find methods of preventing their formation. The suspended oil-coated materials were iron sulfide, barium sulfate, calcium carbonate, clay, and sand (or silica). Results indicated that the sulfide, which was as high as 90 milligrams per liter, was the product of sulfate-reducing bacteria. The injection of ocean water increased the sulfate content of the waters in the petroleum reservoirs from 3 to 250 milligrams per liter, thereby furnishing sulfate for growth of the bacteria. The waters were supersaturated with barium sulfate. Laboratory tests showed that sulfide could be removed from the waters by adding iron at a cost of 1 to 2 mills per barrel. The solubility of iron sulfide and calcium orthophosphate in the injection waters was also determined. Work done in cooperation with the city of Long Beach, CA.
Publication Date
Document Type
IH; Report of Investigation;
Fiscal Year
NTIS Accession No.
NTIS Price
Identifying No.
RI 8031
Source Name
NTIS: PB 242 623
Page last reviewed: November 26, 2021
Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Education and Information Division