Differences in the composition or chemical structure of the organic material in samples of Uinta Basin (Utah) oil shale were studied relative to stratigraphic position within the Green River Formation. This involved a systematic study of the soluble organic material and the insoluble organic material (kerogen) present in the samples. Emphasis was placed upon the distribution of the alkanes (normal and isoprenoid compounds) in the soluble extracts and upon the aromaticity of the kerogen. Significant differences exist in the chemical composition of the organic material from various strata within the Uinta Basin, some of which were related to burial depth but most were related to source material variations, environmental differences, or other factors. The Uinta Basin samples differed significantly from Piceance Creek Basin and Green River Basin samples in the large amount of soluble extract they contained.