Numerous alternative processes have been proposed as being potentially more economical or less polluting than the traditional smelting of copper sulfide concentrates. One such process as recently developed in the laboratory by the Bureau of Mines is composed of a two-stage fluid-bed, oxidation-reduction roasting followed by ammoniacal leaching, solvent extraction, and electrowinning. A copper-leaching recovery of 97.4 percent was obtained, and electrolysis of the acid strip solution deposited metal assaying 99.99 percent copper. The roaster gases contain over 95 percent of the sulfur at a concentration of 12 percent, which is better suited for acid making or elemental sulfur production than conventional smelter gas. When considering byproduct recovery, a preliminary estimate indicates copper production costs are comparable with that of conventional smelters.