During the past 10 years, federal and state regulatory requirements have substantially reduced the environmental, social, and economic impacts of mining activities. Continued attempts to strengthen these requirements should assure the restoration of areas affected by present and future mining and mineral processing. Simultaneously, improvements in mining technology are providing more efficient means of integrating reclamation into the mining cycle and are permitting the recovery of less accessible deposits, thus offering economic incentives to remine and reclaim abandoned areas. While reclamation of abandoned mined lands has been accomplished through limited federal and state programs as well as through natural processes, much remains to be done. This Bureau of Mines report estimates the extent of abandoned coal-mined lands, focusing on problems emanating from such lands, and examining their magnitude, methods and costs of rehabilitation, and reclamation efforts presently being expended by federal and state government agencies and the mining industry. Reclamation cost data are current as of 1978.