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Evaluation of Pulsed-phase-lock-loop Technology Applied to Mine Roof Bolt Load Measurement.

Steblay BJ
MISSING :27 pages
The Bureau of Mines has attempted to use ultrasonic signal travel- time measurements to measure loaded roof bolt strains. The strain measurements are then related to roof bolt loads through equations or empirical calibrations. Such techniques offer the potential of accurate, rapid bolt load measurement that does not disturb the anchorage. This report presents the research findings for a specific type of ultrasonic measurement instrument using a pulsed- phase-lock-loop technique. This technique measures signal travel time indirectly by measuring frequency changes. A complete development of the applicable theory and detailed derivations of key equations is presented along with empirical laboratory and field results. The differences between anticipated and measured behaviors are analyzed and discussed. The report identifies problems encountered in applying pulsed-phase-lock-loop technology to roof bolt load measurement and provides potential solutions to many of them. A key assumption of pulsed-phase-lock-loop theory is that driving and reflected signal frequencies will always be equal. Findings showed that not only were actual frequencies not equal but they were not stable or simply related. Reflection wave shape also was not stable. The ramification of these findings and ways to minimize their adverse effects are presented.
Publication Date
Document Type
IH; Report of Investigations;
Fiscal Year
Identifying No.
RI 9293
NIOSH Division
Source Name
Page last reviewed: November 26, 2021
Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Education and Information Division