The U.S. Bureau of Mines is conducting human factors research for the purpose of reducing accidents and improving the person-machine interface found in surface and underground mining operations. Miners are exposed to a variety of environmental stresors, e.g., extreme heat, noise, vibration, and adverse illumination, throughout the workday. Exposure to these environmental stressors has been noted in the literature to affect performance of vigilance tasks. Since impaired performance of vigilance tasks can lead to industrial accidents, further investigation of the effects of environmental stressors on human performance is warranted. A brief description of the environmental conditions present in the mining workplace is followed by a review of experiments dealing with the effects of environmental stressors on vigilance task performance. The applicability of past research to actual mining operations is considered.