NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search

Analytical chemistry of the citrate process for flue gas desulfurization.

Marchant WN; May SL; Moore BW; Simpson WW
Salt Lake City, UT: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, IC 8819, 1980 Jan; :1-20
The citrate process for flue gas desulfurization (FGD) is a product of continuing research by the U.S. Bureau of Mines to meet the goal of minimizing the objectionable effects of minerals industry operations upon the environment. The reduction of SO2 in solution by H2S to produce elemental sulfur by the citrate process is extremely complex and results in solutions that contain at least nine different sulfur species. Process solution analysis is essential to a clear understanding of process chemistry and its safe, efficient operation. The various chemical species, the approximate ranges of their concentrations in citrate process solutions, and the analytical methods evolved to determine them are hydrogen sulfide (0m to 0.06M) by specific ion electrode, polysulfides (unknown) by ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry, elemental sulfur (0m to 0.001M dissolved, 0m to 0.1M suspended) by UV spectrophotometry, thiosulfate (0m to 0.25M) by iodometry or high performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC), polythionates (0m to 0.01M) by thin layer chromatography (TLC), dithionite (searched for but not detected in process solutions) by polarography or TLC, bisulfite (0m to 0.2M) by iodometry, sulfate (0m to 1m) by a Bureau-developed gravimetric procedure, citric acid (0m to 0.5M) by titration or visible colorimetry, glycolic acid (0m to 1m) by HPLC, sodium (1.5M) by flame photometry, and chloride by argentometric titration.
Air pollution control; Gas analysis; Flue gases; Chemical analysis; Industrial wastes; Combustion products; Sulfur inorganic compounds; Thin layer chromatography; Volumetric analysis; Gravimetric analysis; Citrate process; Air pollution detection; Flue gas desulfurization; Procedures; Selective ion electrode
Publication Date
Document Type
IH; Information Circular
Fiscal Year
NTIS Accession No.
Identifying No.
NIOSH Division
Source Name
Salt Lake City, UT: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, IC 8819
Page last reviewed: November 26, 2021
Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Education and Information Division