This Bureau of Mines publication reviews the location, principal producers, and geologic occurrence of natural iron oxide pigment deposits. The most famous deposits are found in Cyprus, Iran, Spain, France, Italy, and the Federal Republic of Germany; significant deposits are also exploited in India, the Republic of South Africa, and the United States. Some other countries where iron oxide pigment deposits are, or have been, exploited include Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Burma, Canada, Chile, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Kenya, Mexico, Morocco, Pakistan, Paraguay, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and Venezuela. Most iron oxide pigment deposits were derived by decomposition of rocks and minerals, resulting in the secondary redistribution and concentration of liberated iron into favorable sites of accumulation. Gossans, laterites, bog iron ores, karst sediments, river channel sediments, and contact metamorphic limestones are favorable sites for iron oxide pigment deposits. Large-scale sedimentary iron deposits such as the minette, Clinton, and black band ores, and preCambrian iron formations are also important pigment sources. Iron oxide pigments are both mined as a primary product and produced as a byproduct of mining other ores, such as iron ore, barite, or sulfides. Maps, tables of production and trade, and lists of producers are included where possible.