The Bureau of Mines undertook the development and evaluation of a system to provide a simultaneous, on-line determination of both iron and silica in iron ore beneficiation streams as part of a program to improve the efficiency to mineral separation processes. Californium- 252 (252-cf) was the neutron source used in the system for measuring the amounts of silica and iron in bulk slurries by thermal neutron capture-gamma ray spectra analysis. The theory of thermal neutron capture-gamma ray reactions and their potential application to mineral processing stream analysis is discussed. The prototype system and supporting software developed by the Bureau is described. During the initial phase of the work, both simulated and actual pilot plant slurries were investigated using a 60- to 32-ug 252-cf neutron source. The percent solids of the slurries ranged from 2 to 40 percent and the silica and iron content ranged from 1.5 to 83 percent and from 10 to 65 percent, respectively. Accuracy of the determination of the components in the solids was dependent upon the percent solids in the slurry.