The Bureau of Mines produced several series of titanium castings in order to investigate the feasibility of producing commercial-grade titanium castings in bentonite-bonded olivine or zircon sand molds. The use of these molds for titanium casting was investigated as a possible alternative to the industrially used rammed graphite process. Parameters investigated were mold mixtures, mulling, gating, venting, drying, and mold washing. The investigators found that castings with superior ductility and fatigue life, compared with rammed graphite castings, could be made by fume-free processes in molds bonded by western bentonite, using either olivine or zircon sand. Zircon molds were satisfactory for both light- and heavy- sectioned castings. However, olivine molds were suitable only for light-sectioned castings because the mold-metal reaction became excessive during the pouring of heavy-sectioned castings.