The Bureau of Mines has investigated methods for the recovery of byproduct heavy minerals from sand and gravel operations in Oregon and Washington. These heavy minerals are not currently recovered except for gold in a few areas. The recovery of byproduct heavy minerals would provide a domestic source of minerals presently imported, and a more efficient use of domestic resources would be accomplished. Samples from more than 40 locations were treated by gravity separation to yield heavy mineral concentrates (black sands). Magnetite, ilmenite, zircon, rutile, chromite, platinum- group minerals, radioactive minerals, and gold were identified in the concentrates. Individual zircon, ilmenite, chromite, magnetite, and gold products were recovered from selected concentrates by low- and high-intensity magnetic, high-tension, and heavy-medium separation techniques. The recovery for the individual mineral products ranged from 67 to 95 pct.