The Bureau of Mines researched methods for recovering copper from cyclone and electrostatic-precipitator dusts of primary copper smelters as part of its program to maximize minerals and metals recovery from primary and secondary domestic resources. Small-scale studies showed that use of 110 pct stoichiometric sulfur and 123 pct stoichiometric carbon, based on producing a 40-pct copper-iron matte, resulted in the recovery of 95 pct of the copper contained in the dust. Typical mattes contained less than 10 pct of the arsenic, 30 pct of the bismuth, and 45 pct of the antimony and tin contained in the dust. Matte was converted to blister copper by injecting up to 200 pct of the stoichiometric oxygen requirement over a period of 2 to 3 hours. Up to 76 pct of the copper contained in the dust was recovered as a crude blister copper containing about 2 pct arsenic, 0.5 pct antimony, and less than 0.1 pct bismuth and tin. A matte- white metal product resulted from carbothermically reducing dust with coal, lime, and silica. Up to 95 pct of the copper was recovered in the combined product.