The Bureau of Mines evaluated 18 domestic titaniferous materials with widely varying compositions, mineralogy, and physical properties in electric-arc furnaces. Techniques were devised to recover both the titanium and iron values contained in these materials so that the reliance of the United States on foreign sources of higher grade ilmenites and rutile might be decreased. Most of the tested titaniferous materials responded well to lower grade or byproduct reductants, such as bituminous coals, charcoal, and coke breeze. Sufficient slag fluidity was realized by maintaining from 8 to 12 wt-pct iron in the slags; no contaminating fluidizers were required. Fluid slags containing up to 79, 70, and 54 wt-pct tio2 were realized from east coast ilmenites, a rock ilmenite, and a titaniferous magnetite ore, respectively. A carbon- lined furnace shell is recommended for minimum slag contamination. Good results also were obtained during extended submerged-arc furnace tests.