Physical and Chemical Properties of Potential Tailings from Manganese-nodule Processing.
Haynes BW; Kramer GW; Barron DC; Law SL
Ch 11 Oceanic Proc in Marine Pollution 1989 4:113-125
In cooperation with several federal agencies, the Bureau of Mines is conducting research to obtain a first-order physical and chemical characterization of tailings from each of five industry-feasible, first-generation nodule-processing schemes. The results of this research will provide federal and state agencies, as well as industrial interests, with information that will assist in commercial waste-management plans for the disposal of tailings from manganese-nodule processing. This chapter presents results of the characterization from three of the five processes as performed in the laboratory. The laboratory-generated tailings were characterized by chemical, physical, and mineralogical methods. Three leachate tests were conducted on the tailings: the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's extraction procedure toxicity test, the American Society for Testing and Materials shake extraction test, and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers seawater elutriate test. Test results for these first three processes indicate that the wastes are not hazardous as judged by existing regulatory definitions. Predicted tailing compositions for the remaining two processes indicate minimal environmental hazard.
Ch. 11 Oceanic Proc. in Marine Pollution, Vol. 4, Krieger, Malabar, Florida, 1989, PP. 113-125