This report presents the results of an investigation undertaken to provide a basis for improving the beneficiation of raw coals, with particular attention to the processing of fine western coals by two surface chemical methods, froth flotation and selective oil agglomeration. Nine western coals from Utah, Colorado, and Wyoming, ranging from subbituminous, class c, to high-volatile bituminous, class a, were selected for study and were characterized with respect to chemical composition, physical structure, adn wettability. Excellent correspondence was found between chemical composition, particularly the concentration of active oxygen functional groups, and the flotation response of the nine coals. In addition, it was shown that hydrophobic interactions also have an important role in the adsorption of frothers on coals. A process involving a combination of oil agglomeration followed by froth flotation, using viscous oils at dosage rates less than 1 percent, was demonstrated to have potential for cleaning "black water" from coal operations.