A major goal of the Bureau of Mines is to conserve the nation's mineral resources by developing improved performance materials. In support of this mission, a survey of the state of the art of chemically bonded refractories has been made, covering the scientific literature, government reports, and patents. This review includes research and development results for phosphate, silicate, oxychloride, oxysulfate, and other bonding agents used in refractories manufacture. A significant finding of the review was that references on bonding mechanisms, bond formation kinetics, and other important process parameters and conditions were few and universally vague. As a result, recommendations are made to expand research efforts to investigate the kinetics and mechanisms of reactions in chemically bonded refractories.