This Bureau of Mines report on the soviet manganese industry presents information on reserves, mining, technology, ferroalloy production, trade, and consumption. It examines the soviet manganese industry from its historical origins to the present and provides an outlook for the future. This report demonstrates that in all likelihood the soviet manganese industry will experience increased difficulty. Although the U.S.S.R. is the world's largest producer of manganese ore, its reserves of high-grade ore are being depleted, resulting in the need to import ore in recent years and, in 1987, to contract to engage in a joint venture that would enable it to import Brazilian ferromanganese. Furthermore, at the same time that high-grade manganese ore reserves were being depleted, the soviets rapidly expanded electric-furnace ferromanganese production capacity, thereby increasing the need for high-grade manganese concentrate. Soviet production in the future will probably be based on extensive reserves of the lower grade carbonate ore, for which the soviets have not yet mastered the necessary processing technology. In addition, soviet consumption of manganese in steelmaking per ton of steel produced is more than double the amount consumed in industrially advanced countries. The U.S.S.R.'S future supply of manganese of domestic origin will depend on both mastering the technology for processing the lower grade carbonate ore and on introducing improvements in mining, beneficiation, ferroalloys production, and steelmaking to reduce manganese consumption.