This report identifies some of the major technological hurdles that need to be overcome and provides some insight into the research approaches underway or plans to remove these obstacles to a state-of- the-art mining industry in this country. The long-term, high-risk aspects of this effort are being addressed by the Bureau of Mines with support by the mining industry. Such studies have long been the role of the Bureau. New methods to exploit coal and mineral deposits in a safe and healthful manner, in situ mining of valuable minerals, protection of the environment against pollution and subsidence, and, perhaps most important of all, the wise conservation and utilization of natural resources are examples of areas in which initial Bureau research and development can and must help the United States maintain a strong mining industry. The Bureau is committed to serve as the principal agent through which the great mineral potential of thisnation can be realized and our international status as a mineral producer be assured.