This paper summarizes Bureau of Mines research relating to the state of the world gold industry. The authors discuss the world gold industry structure, resources, production, and the long-term cost and availability of primary gold production from producing mines and developing deposits in 13 market economy countries (mec's). Total recoverable gold available from the evaluated mines and deposits is estimated at 819 million troy ounces. The Republic of South Africa is estimated to account for 87% of total recoverable gold. The United States and Canada account for 4% and 4.5% Of the total, respectively. Eighty-three percent of total recoverable gold is available at a constant 1984 break-even price of $400 per ounce. South Africa accounts for 90% of the gold available at $400 per ounce or less. Gold resources in the Soviet Union and China are discussed but not evaluated. South Africa should remain the largest world producer until the year 2000, and annual mec output in the year 2000 should not be significantly different from current output, given constant 1984 gold prices of more than $300 per ounce.