This report presents a Bureau of Mines study of regulations pursuant to four major environmental and occupational health laws and the compliance problems of primary and secondary lead smelters and lead- acid battery manufacturers. Technical feasibility and difficulties in implementing and administering the following standards are addressed: (1) the Occupational Safety and Health Administration standards for occupational exposure to lead, (2) the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) national ambient air quality standard for lead, (3) the EPA hazardous waste management regulations pertaining to recycling of lead, and (4) the EPA effluent limitations under the Clean Water Act and amendments. Although alternative technologies for lead production are emerging and engineering controls are available for retrofitting existing facilities, the economic viability and universal adaptability of these measures are uncertain. Additional pilot and demonstration plant tests may be required for new lead smelting and refining processes. Regulatory approaches in dealing with compliance problems on a plant-by-plant basis would be beneficial. Such an approach should consider the technical and economic feasibility of engineering controls on existing processes and take into account the level of development of new processes.
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