Technological Alternatives for the Conservation of Strategic and Critical Minerals - Cobalt, Chromium, Manganese, and Platinum - Group Metals: A Review.
This Bureau of Mines review focuses on the extent to which technologically and economically feasible programs in substitution, improved processing practices, including recycling, and design can achieve conservation of cobalt, chromium, manganese, and platinum- group metals, and thus reduce U.S. vulnerability to interruptions of supply. In addition, supply-side options--domestic and foreign resources, ocean minerals, and stockpiles--are identified. The report consolidates four major studies on these strategic and critical minerals sponsored entirely or partially by the Bureau in the last few years. These studies have been updated with further information from the recent literature.