No specific cost information was mentioned at the October 1991 meeting at the Bureau of Mines [at which the alloys were introduced] because most of the alloys were in the R&D stage and precise cost and pricing were not available at that time. Since the meeting and the writing of the article, various titanium producers have released pricing information regarding their lower cost alloys. In general, all believe that these alloys will sell for 10 to 25% less than the workhorse Ti-6Al-4V, when rated on a common basis. This cost is based on the two areas of processing and formulation. Different processing for the lower cost alloys can result in significantly larger yields, thus lowering the cost of the alloy. The iron substitutional alloys also have an advantage because vanadium costs approximately $29/kg ($13/lb), while the iron substituted for it costs in the neighborhood of $0.90/kg ($0.40/lb). Of course, the actual cost of all titanium alloys depends on the price of the titanium sponge and scrap utilized in their manufacture. Over the past two years, these prices have fluctuated significantly. It would be appropriate to mention that several other lower cost alloys have been announced or have come to our attention since the article was written. For example, Lawrence Aviation Industries Inc., New York, N.Y., is planning a lower cost alloy based on Ti-6Al-4V, but with different specifications and relaxed nondestructive testing schedules that will allow a higher percentage of scrap to be used in its production. Teledyne Allvac, Monroe, N.C., has supplied us with specifications of its "Motor Quality" alloy that the company registered with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office in 1987. It is basically a standard Ti-6Al-4V alloy having a higher oxygen content. Average tensile properties are: tensile strength, 1205 MPa (175 ksi); yield strength, 1145 MPa (166 ksi); elongation, 17%; reduction in area, 45%. Titanium Metals Corp., Henderson, Nev., has produced another lower cost substitutional alloy designed primarily for the automobile spring market. Its nominal composition is Ti-6.8Mo-4.5Fe-1.5Al, and its tensile properties are: tensile strength, 1505 MPa (218 ksi); yield strength, 1450 MPa (210 ksi); elongation, 6%; reduction in area, 14%.