Diesel-powered equipment operating in a gassy underground mine could conceivably ingest a methane-air mixture from the mine atmosphere that could cause the diesel engine to overspeed, or exceed its rated speed. Engine overspeed, particularly if extreme (engine runaway), could result in personal injury, a possible mine explosion, and/or catastrophic engine failure. In this report, the Bureau of Mines reviews the literature on the potential hazards of methane-induced diesel engine overspeed. Also included are the Bureau's findings from consultations with representatives of the diesel engine industry to determine the specific engine behavior that could be expected under the overspeed condition. The report summarizes data on mine accidents involving methane, discusses results of tests on the compression ignition of methane in diesel engines, and examines fuel governors and intake-air-cutoff devices, two kinds of devices used to prevent overspeed. Analysis of the information gathered suggests that the conditions necessary to cause a diesel engine to overspeed uncontrollably are not likely to occur, particularly if the engine is equipped with flameproofing devices.