Conventional versus developing processes of phosphatic clay disposal: a technical evaluation.
McLendon-JT; Boyle-JR Jr.; Sweeney-JW
Tuscaloosa, AL: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, B 676, 1984 Jan; :1-28
The proper disposition of phosphatic clays has been the subject of research and debated for years by phosphate proudcers, state and federal reserach agenices, regulatory authorities, and environmentalists. Twenty impoundment sites were investigated by the Bureau of Mines using geotechnical methods and laboratory analysis of cored samples. In addition, quasi-static cone penetrometer soundings were conducted to define clay and/or sand- clay interfaces en masse. Samples of the top, middle, and bottom hole segments were obtained at each station for laboratory studies of clay densities, pore fluids, plasticity, and mineralogical properties. The results of this study support the continued use of initial clay settling impoundments but emphasize the need for "in- line" systems to reduce the initial volumes of plant-generated phosphatic clays. The effective use of sand tailings is also encouraged to promote further consolidation of clays via self-weight stressing, sand caps.
Clays; Tailings; Waste-disposal; Phosphate-deposits; Settling; Solid-waste-disposal
NTIS Accession No.
Tuscaloosa, AL: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, B 676