Geologic structures in mine roof rock contribute to many roof falls in Appalachian coal mines. These structures include paleochannels, scours, pinch-outs, slickensides, clay veins, and cravasse splays consisting of thinly interlaminated sandstone and shale. These structures often can be identified during, and sometimes before, development and mine projections can be revised to reduce the adverse effects of discontinuities in roof structure. Large areas of roof consisting of laminated sandstones or incompetent strata generally can be delineated from exploratory drill-hole data and the need for supplementary support can be anticipated. Because an accurate description of roof geology also provides some indication of optimum length and type of roof bolts that should be installed, this Bureau of Mines paper describes the hazardous roof structures most commonly encountered in the Appalachian Coal Region.