This study, performed on a case study basis, can be divided into two parallel thrusts: electrical and thermal energy conservation. In the electrical portion, five areas were addressed: optimal dispatching of on-site generation, high-efficiency motors, conductor selection, power factor correction, and high-efficacy lighting. In the case study mine, which has a multiple-unit on-site generation system, optimally dispatching units can save significant energy. The other four methods are difficult to justify on a retrofit basis owing to capital costs. In the thermal portion of the study, a thermodynamic analysis was performed on the reverberatory smelting process. Possible areas of energy conservation were identified as radiation and convection heat losses from the furnace arch and the dumping of high energy content smelting slag. It was determined that materials currently available can provide the means of reducing heat loss from the reverberatory furnace. It was also determined that a significant amount of energy may be recovered from the slag.