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Review of Anhydrous Zirconium-hafnium Separation Techniques.
Skaggs-RL; Rogers-DT; Hunter-DB
MISSING :25 pages
Sixteen nonaqueous techniques conceived to replace the current aqueous scheme for separating hafnium and zirconium tetrachlorides were reviewed and evaluated by the Bureau of Mines. The methods are divided into two classes: separation by fractional volatilization of the tetrachlorides, which takes advantage of the higher volatility of hafnium tetrachloride; and separation by chemical techniques, based on differences in chemical behavior of the two tetrachlorides. The criteria used to evaluate separation methods were temperature, pressure, separation factor per equilibrium stage, complexity, compatibility with existing technology, and potential for continuous operation. Three processes were selected as being most promising: (1) high-pressure distillation, (2) extractive distillation from a molten salt, and (3) preferential reduction of gaseous zrcl4. Any of the proposed nonaqueous hf-zr separation schemes must be supplemented with additional purification to remove trace impurities.
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