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Methods for Characterizing Manganese Nodules and Processing Wastes.
Haynes-BW; Barron-DC; Kramer-GW; Law-SL
MISSING :10 pages
Analytical procedures are described for the quantitative determination of 16 elements (as, ba, be, cd, CO, cr, cu, fe, mn, mo, ni, pb, sb, se, tl, and zn) and 7 ionic species (nh4+, co32-, cl- , f-, no3-, po43-, and so42-), identification of major and minor mineral components, and measurement of physical properties associated with manganese nodules and nodule processing reject waste materials. Compound identification methods discussed include x-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, selective area electron diffraction, and optical and reflected light microscopy. Methods for elemental analysis include atomic absorption spectrophotometry, inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy, neutron activation analysis, fluorescent x-ray spectrography, and ion chromatography. Thermal gravimetric analysis, ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, ion specific electrodes, and standard wet chemical procedures are briefly discussed. Physical properties determined in manganese nodule materials include grain size distribution, specific gravity, triaxial shear, permeability, maximum density, atterberg limits, and slurry density. The results of a round-robin analysis of an ammonia process waste material and manganese nodule standards demonstrate the applicability of the discussed methods. Tests discussed for the evaluation of the waste materials for disposal options include the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ep toxicity test, the ASTM shake extraction test, and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers EPA seawater elutriant test.
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Page last reviewed: September 2, 2020
Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Education and Information Division