The principal use of vanadium is as an alloying element in iron and steel. The addition of small amounts of vanadium, often less than 0.1%, to an ordinary carbon steel can significantly increase its strength and improve both its toughness and ductility. Such high- strength low-alloy steels are attractive for highrise buildings, bridges, and pipelines because of the weight savings obtained. Vanadium is also used to strengthen titanium. Vanadium-aluminum alloys of titanium are widely utilized in aircraft parts. Oxides and chlorides of vanadium play an important role as catalysts in the production of sulfuric acid and key intermediate organic chemicals. This Bureau of Mines report presents comprehensive data on vanadium including strategic considerations, problems, technology trends, reserves and resources, supply-demand relationships, economic factors and problems, operating factors and problems, and outlook to 2000.