The Florida phosphate industry currently produces more than 80 pct of the total U.S. marketable output of phosphate rock. Because phosphate is one of three principal nutrients used in formulating a complete fertilizer, it is imperative that an uninterrupted supply of this material be available to meet the agricultural requirements of the United States while maintaining a viable phosphate industry which is competitive in world markets. As a result of an evaluation made by the Bureau of Mines, five areas were identified that affect the overall production and projected growth of the phosphate industry in Florida. These areas relate to the technological ability of the industry to comply with environmental regulations and performance standards by using the best available technology. The most significant technical problem facing the industry is the management of the clay fraction rejected during the beneficiation of phosphate ores. Other areas of concern are environmental restrictions and regulatory requirements, issues associated with mining and reclamation of wetlands, reclamation of other disturbed lands, and consumptive water use. Each of these areas is reviewed, with major emphasis placed on the current state-of-the-art processes for treatment and management of phosphatic clays.