The Bureau of Mines conducted bench-scale research to evaluate materials that showed potential as low-cost reductants for use in the ironmaking industry. These materials were lignite, subbituminous coal, coal char, tree trimmings, refuse-derived paperboard, used crankcase oil, and peat. To compare their effectiveness, the materials were tested in the reduction roasting of nonmagnetic taconite and, except for oil and peat, in the reduction of iron oxide pellets to metallized pellets. Reduction was conducted in a 18-cm-diameter rotary drum, which was externally heated in an electric furnace. Over 92 pct of the iron was magnetically recovered from a nonmagnetic taconite after roasting with any of the reductants, but greater quantities of reductant were required to achieve this when the waste materials were used. The fossil fuels were also more effective for metallizing pellets, although metallization above 90 pct were also obtained with tree trimmings and refuse paperboard. However, refuse paperboard had to be frequently recharged to the furnace because it depleted rapidly.