The objectives are (1) to determine which productivity measures serve as the best indicators of the financial health and efficiency of the strategic and critical minerals industries, and (2) to develop and estimate a model that identifies the major determinants of productivity, using copper as a test case. Seven productivity measures were selected: output per production worker hour (qpm), qpm in copper smelting, qpm in copper refining, output per unit of capital (qpk), qpk in smelting and refining, multifactor productivity in mining, and total factor productivity in copper smelting and refining. An econometric model was developed and estimated that identifies the major determinants in the following categories: resource base and institutional characteristics, general economic factors, and technological factors. Results are: productivity measures are affected by ore grade, capital-labor ratios, real gross national product (gnp), cost of energy, government regulations, strikes, injury rates, and technology. (2) Technology is the most important factor for labor and capital productivity in mining. (3) Labor productivity correlates positively with gnp while other productivity measures correlate negatively. (4) Government-mandated pollution control expenditures in copper refining impact four times as great as in mining and three times as great as in smelting.