Explosion and fire properties of oil shale.
Proceedings of the 10th Oil Shale Symposium April 21-22, 1977, Golden, Colorado. Reubens JB, ed. Golden, CO: Colorado School of Mines Press, 1977 Jul; :45-59
Because experience in the mining of oil shale is limited, the possible fire and explosion hazards of mining and processing have not been assessed in detail. The U.S. Bureau of Mines has recently conducted extensive dust explosion tests in its Experimental Mine. Using dust of a fineness comparable to pulverized coal dust, we found that dust explosions, initiated by natural gas-air explosions, would propagate through clouds of oil shale dust whose assay was equal to or greater than 25 gallons per ton (94 kg/ tonne). Nominal explosive dust concentrations ranged from 0.2 to 0.6 ounce per cubic foot of air (0.2 - 0.6 gm/liter) , depending on organic content. Explosions occurred when the nominal concentrations of volatiles exceeded 0.05 oz/ft3 (0.05 gm/liter). Rock dust, when premixed with the oil shale dust, was effective in suppressing explosions. Results of laboratory tests of spontaneous ignition of oil shale dust (the richer shales compare with coal dust) and a laboratory-scale fire test, in a gallery lined with oil shale bricks, are reported. After a considerable ignition period, flame propagated through the gallery in the presence of ventilating flow.
Mining-industry; Oil-shale; Fire-hazards; Fire-prevention; Explosion-prevention; Explosive-dusts; Explosive-gases
OP; Conference/Symposia Proceedings
Proceedings of the 10th Oil Shale Symposium April 21-22, 1977, Golden, Colorado