The present state-of-the-art of explosives development and borehole loading techniques are described. Characteristics of explosive reactions are covered, and the physical and detonating properties of specific explosives are compared. A brief description of each commercial explosive type is included. Commonly used detonators and primers are described. General price trends for various categories of explosive products are shown as well as key factors in the choice of explosive. Common methods of loading both small- and large- diameter boreholes with cartridged, bagged, and bulk products are covered. Controlled blasting techniques (line drilling, presplitting, smooth blasting, and cushion blasting) are described, including recommended spacings. The reader is directed to key sources of available safety literature. The paper is concluded with 38 references considered useful to persons involved in commercial blasting operations.
Subsection 11.7 in SME Mining Eng. Handbook, Vol. 1, 1973, PP. 11-78 to 11-99