An investigation was conducted on the use of a mechanical rock splitter as the primary means for rock fragmentation in underground hard rock mining systems. Analyses and scale model tests showed that reasonably sized splitters that could be mounted on the booms of conventional drill jumbos were capable of fragmenting over 1 ton of rock per cycle. Detailed drill-split mining systems were developed for entry development, room-and-pillar, bench mining, and cut and fill mining. Economic analyses of these systems showed them to be generally competitive with conventional drill-blast methods. Except for bench mining, drill-split offered substantial cost savings over drill-blast. The investigation also included a technical evaluation of the mechanical splitter, an analysis of health and safety, and a determination of the potential applicability of drilling and splitting.