Beginning in 1972, fully grouted resin bolts were used in underground mines. An estimated 20 million resin bolts will be installed in 1980 owing to their apparent support improvement in most roof-bolt applications. Inorganic cements were tested to replace the resin at a lower cost while retaining the advantages of a grouted bolt. Although other inorganic materials were considered, all but portland and gypsum cements were rejected for reasons of availability, performance, or cost. Portland and gypsum-type cements were tested by the Bureau of Mines to select a fast- hardening, low-cost material that would anchor a roof bolt adequately to meet safety standards. An alpha-gypsum cement, accelerated with potassium sulfate, was selected as the best material because it had adequate pull strength at a desired set time of less than 5 minutes and was readily available.