The effects of adding varying amounts of type I portland cement to hydraulic backfill are described. Six different fill materials, each with three cement contents, were tested to determine which fill properties have the most significant effect on cemented strength. Two strength prediction equations, based on the physical and mineralogical properties of the fills, were formulated, and these accounted for 96 and 99 percent of the variability of the data. Results of both unconfined compression and triaxial tests of cemented fills are given, and the effects of moist curing and fill densification on the 7-day strength are discussed. Permeability test data are given, and the decreased permeability due to cement content and curing time is shown graphically. A discussion of the limited evaluation of other potential stabilization additives (expansive cement, fly ash, sodium silicate, gypsum, and asphalt) is included in an appendix.