A new method (pneumatic, gas-sampling) of fire detection in large residential, commercial, or industrial habitats is described and evaluated. The method uses a branching tree of many tubes to convey air samples for each zone of interest in the habitat to a central trunk station for analysis and control. Ambient air from each zone is pumped continuously through its individual tube and is then analyzed sequentially by a single sensitive, sophisticated fire sensor. The limitations of the method, involving sample travel times, smoke transmission losses, and cycling time constraints, were studied and evaluated both experimentally and theoretically. Data are presented and compared with theoretical expectations. Several design examples are presented that show that the pneumatic system is feasible and is a competitive alternative to current methods for the timely and reliable detection of developing fires.
J. Fire Flammability, V. 9, April 1978, PP. 199-216