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Influence of Volatile Fuel Components on Vehicle Emissions.

Eccleston-BH; Noble-BF; Hurn-RW
NTIS: PB 190 648 :80 pages
The Bureau of Mines, in cooperation with the American Petroleum Institute, studied the effect of fuel volatility and front-end fuel composition on the amount and photochemical reactivity of automobile exhaust and fuel-system evaporative emissions. The study involved six gasolines--the base fuel, three fuels of varied volatility, and two fuels differing from the base and from each other in front-end olefin content. Data were obtained from 16 vehicles operated on a chassis dynamometer using a speed-loadtime cycle that approximated a typical urban trip. Tests were made at ambient temperatures of 20 deg., 45 Deg., 70 Deg. and 95 deg. F, using a climate-controlled dynamometer room. The amount of hydrocarbon emission and its probable photochemical effect, a potential contribution to pollution, is expressed as weight (reactivity equivalent) of a moderately reactive material, ethylene. Emission of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and aldehydes were also observed. Results showed that reduction of volatility from currently typical levels serves to reduce both the amount and the reactivity equivalent of evaporative losses with a slight penalty by way of higher exhaust emissions. Alternatively, reducing the amount of light (low boiling) olefin in the fuel had no effect on the amount of hydrocarbon pollutant but did significantly reduce the reactivity equivalent of the emissions. Neither volatility change nor chemical changes to the fuel significantly affected the nonhydrocarbon emissions. Work done in cooperation with the American Petroleum Institute.
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NTIS: PB 190 648
Page last reviewed: September 2, 2020
Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Education and Information Division