Fire and explosion properties of oil shale, part II.
Richmond-JK; Sapko-MJ; Miller-LF; Furno-AL; Dalverny-LE
Proceedings of the 13th Oil Shale Symposium April 16-18, 1980, Golden, Colorado. Gary JH, ed. Golden, CO: Colorado School of Mines Press, 1980 Aug; :193-207
Further measurements of the explosivity of oil shale dust have been carried out in the Experimental Mine of the Bureau of Mines, now in a double-entry configuration. All dust explosions were initiated by the explosion of a pocket of natural gas-air mixture at the closed end of one entry. Flame propagation speed, overpressure, temperature, and other parameters were measured by a variety of sensors. Total dust loading varied from 1/4 to 3/4 ton per test (depending on grade), with propagation being possible down to 22 gallons per ton for fine dust (80 pct through 200 mesh). Coarse dust (about 50 pct through 200 mesh) was found to be only about 40 pct as explosive as fine dust of the same grade. In another area of the Experimental Mine, large scale oil shale rubble fire tests were conducted, using run-of-mine rubble (size minus 12 inch). In one test, 4 tons were ignited by 1/2 gallon of diesel fuel and burned to completion. In the other test, 8 tons were ignited by a mixture of diesel fuel, wood, sawdust, ANFO, and black powder; this also burned to completion. Primary data was flame spread rate (measured by thermocouples), with other sensors being applied to measure air temperature, smoke, product gas compositions, air flow patterns, and toxic particulate and gaseous products. Flame spread rate was found to be relatively insensitive to ventilating air flow over a large range. The significance of this research is evaluated with the help of sampling in operating mines.
Oil-industry; Oil-shale; Explosive-dusts; Explosions; Explosion-prevention; Dusts; Mining-industry; Underground-mining
OP; Conference/Symposia Proceedings
Proceedings of the 13th Oil Shale Symposium April 16-18, 1980, Golden, Colorado