The Bureau of Mines conducted a field study of respirable dust concentrations at an underground room-and-pillar oil shale mine and at the aboveground milling facility to determine the dust generation sources, personal respirable exposure, characteristic minerals, and size distribution of the dust. Major dust sources in the mine were the scaling and blasthole drilling operations, and major dust sources in the processing mill were the screening and crushing operations. Principal minerals found in the airborne respirable dust were albite, analcite, calcite, dolomite, quartz, and orthoclase. The average alphaquartz content of mine and mill respirable dust samples was 4.1 pct and 15.5 pct, respectively. Carbonaceous material such as diesel particulate accounted for approximately 75 pct of the respirable particulate found in the mine. The average coefficient of variance of respirable dust concentrations measured with approved personal dust samplers in the mine and mill was 7.6 pct, the best precision observed to date with the personal dust sampler operated in the field.