A study was done to investigate malathion (121755) permeation through several rubber glove materials using an American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) type permeation cell and to study how the carrier, whether water, hexane, or meta(m)-xylene, affected the permeation of malathion through the various materials. Potential malathion exposures were highest when handling pure and technical grade materials and emulsifiable concentrations. Two formulations were tested: Aqua Malathion and Prentox Malathion. The major alkylbenzene inert components in both Prent and Aqua were xylenes, trimethylbenzenes, ethyl-toluenes, and propyl-benzenes. Pure malathion, undiluted malathion formulations, and 50 percent malathion/m-xylene (1330207) permeated through nitrile within 8 hours, but not through Viton or Silver Shield gloves. Malathion in a commercial formulation, in m-xylene mixtures, and in a formulation mixed with m-xylene, permeated through nitrile with slower steady state permeation rates, longer breakthrough times, and longer lag times than pure liquid malathion due to dilution and the modulating effects of the more nonpolar inert components. The influence of the carrier was also evident. The authors conclude that the bulk properties of the challenge solutions determined the permeation of the individual mixture components as well as dilution effects. Nitrile gloves should be replaced every 60 minutes when handling these two formulations. However, they will not protect against pure technical malathion. Nitrile can be used for at last 4 hours to protect against diluted formulations and diluted pure/technical malathion.
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