The results of a survey of the activities of industrial hygiene laboratories were summarized. The purpose of the survey which was conducted in 1996 by NIOSH and the American Industrial Hygiene Association was to determine what types of analyses were being performed by industrial hygiene laboratories and how well NIOSH analytical methods met the needs of the laboratories and their clients. A questionnaire was sent to all laboratories participating in the Proficiency Analytical Testing, the Asbestos (1332214) Analysis Registry, and the Environmental Lead (7439921) Proficiency Analytical Testing Programs. A total of 347 responses were received. Approximately 75% of the responding laboratories conducted fee for service analyses and about half conducted analyses for internal customers. The principal clients of the laboratories were: consulting firms, 204 laboratories; government agencies, 190 laboratories; and construction firms, 156 laboratories. Many of the analyses conducted for construction firms were associated with lead and asbestos remediation. Over the 6 months (mo) preceding the survey, 81% of the participating laboratories performed industrial hygiene workplace analyses and these samples represented 55% of the sample workload. Approximately 42% of the laboratories analyzed environmental samples, which represented 47% of their sample workload. By analyte, asbestos fiber and lead analyses were the most frequently performed analyses, followed by analyses for other metals, hydrocarbons, and other organic compounds. The most frequently used NIOSH methods were techniques for phase contrast microscope fiber counting, methods for determining particulates, aromatic amines, ethylene-oxide, alcohols, and ketones, and the general NIOSH inductively coupled plasma/atomic emission spectroscopy method for determining metals. Approximately 17% of the laboratories received at least one request to analyze substances in the past 6mo for which no NIOSH analytical method existed. Most of the laboratories liked the NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM), a publication that contained all of the NIOSH analytical methods. Approximately 86% of the respondents stated that the NMAM should also be a repository for industrial hygiene methods developed outside of NIOSH and that the NIOSH methods should be validated. A summary of comments about specific NIOSH analytical methods made by the responding laboratories was presented.