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Field investigation of on-site techniques for the measurement of lead in paint films.
Ashley K; Hunter M; Tait LH; Dozier J; Seaman JL; Berry PF
Field Anal Chem Tech 1998 Jan; 2(1):39-50
Field evaluation of on/site techniques for measuring lead (7439921) in paint films was conducted. Five by 5 centimeter paint film samples were collected from buildings on the campus of Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University, Tallahassee. The samples were obtained from plastic, brick, metal and wood surfaces. After removal, the samples were weighed, ground, and examined in/situ or ex/situ for lead using a chemical spot test kit, a portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer, and by anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) using a portable ASV instrument after ultrasonic extraction of the samples with 10% nitric-acid. The chemical spot test kit was based on the reaction of the rhodizonate ion with lead to form a pink or red colored rhodizonate/lead complex under acidic conditions. Results obtained from using each of the three field techniques were compared with atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) analysis, which served as the gold standard. The chemical spot test kit produced three negative readings out of 66 positive responses, false negative rate of 4.5%, above the Department of Housing and Urban Development action level of 0.5% lead. The spot test also produced four positive results out of 105 negative results, false positive rate of 3.8%, below the Consumer Product Safety Commission action level of 0.06% lead. Linear regression of in/situ and ex/situ XRF data on the AAS data yielded overall correlation coefficients of 0.727 and 0.868, respectively. Best correlation for the in/situ data was for samples obtained from metal surfaces, correlation coefficient of 0.915. The best correlation for the ex/situ data was for samples taken from brick surfaces, correlation coefficient of 0.963. ASV data, obtained by ex/situ analysis, were reasonably well correlated with the AAS data, overall correlation coefficient of 0.814. Best correlation was for samples from brick surfaces, correlation coefficient of 0.965. The authors conclude that chemical test kits based on the rhodizonate spot test and portable XRF can be used for screening for lead in paint under field conditions.
Heavy-metals; Analytical-methods; Colorimetry; Electrochemical-analysis; X-ray-analysis; Paints; Sample-preparation; Analytical-instruments; Atomic-absorption-spectrometry; Lead-compounds; Statistical-analysis
Issue of Publication
Field Analytical Chemistry and Technology
Page last reviewed: October 26, 2020
Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Education and Information Division