Determination of lead (7439921) in workplace air samples via ultrasonic on site extraction (UE) and anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) was studied. Airborne particulate lead samples were collected using a cellulose ester membrane filter cassette linked to a personal sampling pump. Lead samples for UE were treated with a nitric-acid solution, followed by exposure to ultrasonic energy. The amount of lead present in solution was then determined using ASV, which consisted of the electrochemical preconcentration of lead on a working electrode surface, followed by the stripping of lead from the electrode. The current resulting from the stripping, or reoxidation, of lead was proportional to the lead concentration in the air sample. NIOSH Method 7001 was based on the UE/ASV method described above. The method allows for the on site determination of lead in area or personal breathing zone samples. Because the method is rapid, efforts aimed at the reduction of lead exposure were quickly implemented. The UE/ASV method, applicable to general industry, was especially useful in the construction industry. The performance of the UE/ASV method was assessed using two different ASV instruments. Both the Chemtronix and PaceScan instruments met the NIOSH accuracy criteria for a sampling and analytical test method. The UE/ASV method was also capable of determining lead in various environmental matrices. However, UE/ASV was limited to nonbiological environmental samples. Thallium, copper, surfactants, and proteins interfered with the determination of lead by ASV. Proper maintenance of the ultrasonic baths and ASV electrodes was considered to be essential for efficient and accurate analysis. Listings of applicable regulations and standards were provided. The author concludes with a description of the available ASV instrumentation.