Airborne emissions at skin surfaces: a potential biological exposure index.
Batterman-SA; Franzblau-A; Zhou-N
Int Arch Occup Environ Health 1996 May; 68(4):268-274
The effects of dermal exposure to methanol (67561) on its concentration in blood, breath, and headspace air at skin surfaces were examined. Blood, breath, and skin surface air samples were obtained from four female subjects before and after up to 16 minutes of hand immersion in methanol. A static chamber technique was used to measure airborne methanol concentrations at the skin surface. Breath samples were obtained with gas sampling bags. Methanol and carbon-dioxide (124389) (CO2) concentrations in the headspace air and breath samples were measured using Fourier transform infrared analysis. Gas chromatography with flame ionization detection was applied to blood analysis. Skin surface methanol concentrations at the exposed hand increased substantially with exposure, peaking at about 1 hour after exposure. The methanol concentration at the skin surface declined sharply between 1 and 2 hours after exposure, then gradually between 2 and 8 hours after exposure. Skin surface methanol concentrations at the unexposed hand were higher in subjects with unrestricted hand contact than in subjects with restricted hand contact. Methanol blood levels tended to increase with increasing exposure duration. Blood methanol concentrations generally peaked at about 1 to 2 hours following exposure, then declined gradually. Methanol blood levels varied considerably among the subjects. CO2 levels remained stable in headspace air throughout the study. Skin surface methanol concentrations at the unexposed hand were highly correlated with blood concentrations, with a coefficient of 0.79. Methanol breath concentrations were also highly correlated with blood concentrations, with a coefficient of 0.80. The authors conclude that the measure of headspace emissions from skin surfaces may serve as a suitable biological exposure index of methanol exposure.
NIOSH-Publication; NIOSH-Grant; Grants-other; Humans; Skin-exposure; Skin-absorption; Alcohols; Organic-solvents; Blood-analysis; Respiratory-gas-analysis
Environmental & Indust Health University of Michigan 1420 Washington Heights Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
University of Michigan at Ann Arbor, Ann Arbor, Michigan